Singapore University of Social Sciences

Pedagogical Grammar

Pedagogical Grammar (TSL561)


TSL 561 Pedagogical Grammar provides students with an overview of past approaches to teaching grammar in second language classrooms, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. More recent conceptualisations of the focus-on-form approach argue that grammar teaching must be part of a broader conception of second language learning that includes both form-focused instruction and opportunities for interaction/practice and output. Several focus-on-form methods are then examined critically for their applicability to the TESOL classroom.

Level: 5
Credit Units: 5
Presentation Pattern: Every 2 years


  • Overview of past approaches: Grammar-based; Grammar Translation; Presentation-Practice-Production
  • Communicative-based and Task-based approaches
  • Explicit and implicit focus on form
  • Deductive and inductive noticing; consciousness-raising of form
  • Planned and unplanned focus on form
  • Teaching grammar: The role of instruction, interaction, practice and output
  • Method 1: Focus on Grammar through Processing Instruction
  • Method 2: Focus on Grammar through Textual Enhancement
  • Method 3: Focus on Grammar through Discourse
  • Method 4: Focus on Grammar through Interactional Feedback
  • Method 5: Focus on Grammar through Structured Grammar-Focused Tasks
  • Method 6: Focus on Grammar through Collaborative Output Tasks

Learning Outcome

  • Discuss past approaches to teaching grammar
  • Critique the Communicative-based and Task-based approaches
  • Distinguish between the notions in each of the following dichotomies: explicit versus implicit focus on form; deductive versus inductive noticing; planned versus unplanned focus on form
  • Appraise the focus-on-form methods
  • Evaluate grammar teaching materials in terms of their underlying approach, efficacy and contextual appropriateness
  • Design grammar teaching materials that are theoretically sound, effective and contextually appropriate
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